English publications by Iranian Librarians and Library educators
1. "National planning and academic libraries in Western Asia". N. Ansari. National and international library planning: key papers presented at the 40th Session of the IFLA General Counc Washington, DC, 1974, edited by R. Vosper, L.I. Newkirk. Munich, Verlag Dokumentation, 1976, P116-121.
For the purposes of this paper, the area of Western Asia encompasses North Africa, the Middle East and Southwest Asia which share the common factors of Islamic heritage, illiteracy, migration towards urban centers and rural economy. The present state of library development is briefly discussed in the areas of academic libraries, special libraries and documentation centers, and national libraries and archives. Comments are made on several national plans in existences which give evidence of interest in planned development. Regional cooperation and possible future directions are mentioned.
2. "A brief overview of professional journals in Iran". N. Ansari, S. Gezelayagh. Bookbird; 31 (4) Winter, 1993, P.13-14.
Contribution to an issue devoted mainly to the theme of: prospects for children's literature periodicals in the electronic age. Remarks on the fact that, although there are a number of periodicals in Iran which cover children's literature research, each periodical belongs to a particular private or government organization, each adheres to a special point of view, and each is tailored to a specific readership.
3. "SDI processing for search profiles in online databases". N. Ansari. Aslib Proceedings; 50 (4) Apr. 1998, P.85-87.
Paper presented at the 4Eighth FID (Federation Internationale d'Information et de Documentation) Conference held in Graz, Austria, 20-25 October 1996. Describes the Alert Service offered for the retrieval of international information on public tenders from the database Tenders Electronic Daily (TED) provided by the European Office for Official Publications (EUR-OP). The system uses predefined client profiles to select the required information from the database and distributes this information the same day by either fax or email using SDI (Selected Dissemination of Information). (Original abstract – amended).
1. "The Law of Exponential Growth: evidence, implications and forecasts". Jean Tague, J. beheshti, Lorn Rees Potter, L. Rees Potter. Library Trends; 30 (1) Summer 1981, 125-149.
Examines the underlying exponential nature of a number of bibliometric models and questions its validity and reliability as a measure of the growth of knowledge.
2. "Morse's Markov model of book use revisited". J. Beheshti, Jean M. Tague. Journal of the American Society for Information Science; 35 (5), Sept 1984, 259-267.
Over a decade ago, P.M. Morse suggested a simple Markov model of book use for a science library. Since then his model has been modified and used in a number of applications but the reliability of the basic assumptions underlying the model's parameters has not been tested. Utilising 11 years of circulation transactions of Saskatchewan university library, it is shown that Morse's model fits approximately 99% of the data for the whole collection and for 3 subject areas; and contrary to his assumptions, one of the model's parameters, a, is time dependent.
3. "A longitudinal study of the use of library books by undergraduate students". J. Beheshti. Information Processing and Management; 25 (6) 1989, 737-744.
Student volunteers employed structured diaries to record the time they spent browsing/reading borrowed library books during a 2 month period. The average time spent browsing/reading a book is 50 minutes per user per day, the average total contact time per book is 131 minutes, and hence the major portion of use occurs during 2 days of the loan period. 00 Original abstract
4. "A cross-sectional study of the use of library books by undergraduate students". J. Beheshti. Information Processing and Management; 25 (6) 1989, 727-735.
Over 700 students in 2 universities were interviewed to determine their use of the books they had borrowed. The majority of borrowed books were used in the initial part of the loan period. Average contact times which were used to measure use were not significantly different between the 2 universities with varying loan periods. 00 Original abstract
5. "Beyond circulation statistics: measuring patterns of book use". J. Beheshti. Canadian Library Journal; 46 (6) Dec 89, 397-398.
Reports on research undertaken to measure use of books borrowed by undergraduate students at the University of Western Ontario and McGill University, Quebec. Results show that the majority of books checked out are used shortly after borrowing, within the First 7-10 days. Within this time students spend an average of 1 hour per day reading or browsing the books. But the total amount of time spent on each book, on average, is not more than approximately 2 hours. Factors influencing contact time may be year of study and purpose and course for which a book is issued. 00 P.B.
6. "Retrieval interfaces for CD-ROM bibliographic databases". J. Beheshti. CD-ROM Professional; 4 (1) Jan 91, 50-53.
Points to the large number of different retrieval interfaces, menus and commands facing users of CD-ROM data bases compared with the relatively small number involved with on-line data bases. Briefly examines 6 different CD-ROM interfaces: DIALOG OnDisc; SilverPlatter Information Inc.; WILSONDISC; PAIS (Online Computer Systems Inc.); Institute for Scientific Information (ISI); and CCINFOdisc (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety). Notes the differences and similarities and proposes an alternative interface. 00 N.L.M.
7. "Multimedia and the acquisition of information". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Breleux, A. Renaud. Online Information 92. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Online Information Meeting, London, 8-10 December 1992. Edited by David I. Raitt, Oxford and New Jersey, Learned Information (Europe) Ltd, 1992, p.233-40.
Describes the methodology and reports the results of a study to measure text comprehension by school students when using a variety of media. Four different texts in the printed multi volume Compton's Encyclopedia and its multimedia CD-ROM database equivalent were read by grade 6 (11-12 year old) students who were then asked several multiple choice questions on them. Three groups, print, text on screen and multimedia (text, illustrations and video), were asked only to read the texts presented to them. Two additional groups, print and multimedia CD-ROM, had to retrieve the texts before reading them. No significant main effect was found for multimedia over print or text on screen. However, a significant interaction was found between the use of multimedia and text complexity. Boys were found to cope markedly better with multimedia CD-ROM, a finding which was not expected and ran counter to the results of previous studies. Original abstract-amended.
8. "Browsing through public access catalogs". J. Beheshti. Information Technology and Libraries; 11 (3) Sep 92, p.220-8.
Browsing is an important aspect of the information-seeking activities of library users and is primarily visual. Second-generation online public access catalogues (OPACs) lack the necessary visual characteristics for browsing. These characteristics can be implemented through simulation of images of books and library shelves on the computer monitors. To mimic users' mental models of the real world can be costly, unless new interfaces can use existing sources of information. The information embedded in the MARC record pertaining to the physical description of a book could be used. Public Access Catalog Extension (PACE) is designed as an alternative interface based on mental images of users and MARC records.
9. "Networking CD-ROMs: response time implications". J. Beheshti, A. Large. CD-ROM Professional; 5 (6) Nov 92, p.70, 72-4, 76-8.
Reports results of a research project, carried out at, McGill University, Graduate School of Library and Information Studies, to determine the influence on response times for local area network CD-ROM searching as additional workstations are networked. The experiment involved 3 bibliographic CD-ROM databases which were searched, using incrementally up to 10 workstations, in order to identify any response time degradation. The databases used were: DIALOG OnDisc ERIC; Silver Platter Information Inc., ERIC; and WILSONDISC Library Literature. The results are also given for a comparative analysis of the effect of indexing terms, truncated terms, and Boolean searching. Results for the 3 databases indicate that response times for the 3 selected CD-ROM products worsen as the number of workstations increases. This degradation is not uniform across the 3 products or when using different types of search statements. All 3 products performed satisfactorily with 10 workstations when searching single indexed terms. A truncated term search found WILSONDISC's Library Literature struggling at even 1 workstation. DIALOG On Disc alone managed to meet the ideal target of 15 seconds with up to 10 workstations.
10. "Computer programming in LIS education". J. Beheshti. Education for Information; 11 (2) Jun 1993, p.123-36.
A fundamental knowledge of computer programming is important for library and information science (LIS) students. An understanding of the structures of a language allows students to use the computer in a more perceptive way. In addition, programming teaches cognitive skills, which may be transferable to domains such as cataloguing and classification. Presents an example of the application of BASIC, viewed as the most suitable language for novices, in a LIS course. Original abstract-amended.
11. "A comparison of information retrieval from print and CD-ROM versions of an encyclopedia by elementary school students". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Breuleux. Information Processing and Management; 30 (4) Jul-Aug 94, p.499-513.
Describes an experiment using 48 sixth grade students to compare retrieval techniques using the print and CD-ROM versions of Compton's Encyclopedia. Four queries of different complexity (measured by the number of terms present) were searched by the students after a short training session. The searches were timed and the retrieval steps and search terms were noted. The searches were no faster on the CD-ROM than the print version, but in both cases time was related directly to the number of terms involved. The students coped well with the CD-ROM interface and its several retrieval paths. Original abstract.
12. "Multimedia and comprehension: the relationship among text, animation, and captions". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Breuleux, A. Renaud. Journal of the American Society for Information Science; 46 (5), Jun 95, p.340-7.
Reports the results from the Second phase of a cognitive study of multimedia and its effect on children's learning. A sample of 12 year olds primary schools viewed a procedural text that included a 4 sequence animation with captions on how to find south using the sun's shadow, adapted from Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia using Apple QuickTime. The children were divided into 4 groups; text plus animation; text plus captions plus animation; and captions with animation. They were then asked to undertake to recall in their own words what they had learned, and also to enact how they would find south using a specially designed model. No significant differences were found among the groups regarding literal recall of what they had read and seen, or in their ability to draw inferences from it. The children in the text plus animation and captions groups, however, were more successful at identifying the major steps in the procedure and at enacting that procedure whereas the children who read the text only experienced the most difficulty in performing the procedure. Original abstract-amended.
13. "Multimedia in primary education: how effective is it?". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Renaud. School Library Media Quarterly; 24 (1), Fall 95, p.19-25.
Many multimedia products are now available that are targeted at school users. Publishers, product reviewers, librarians, and educators often make ambitious claims for the educational virtues of multimedia sources as compared with either printed books or text only digital sources. Such claims are usually based on conjecture, however, rather than research findings. Asks, does multimedia information produce higher recall and comprehension levels? Reports the 3 phases of a project undertaken to answer this question in the case of Sixth grade primary school students. Original abstract.
14. "Ein systematisches Trainingsprogramm fur den Umgang mit den neuen Technologien in den Informationsberufen". (A systematic training programme for the application of new technologies in the information professions). J. Beheshti. Bibliothek Forschung und Praxis; 20 (1) 1996, p.40-9.
Information professionals need to be proficient in the use of information technology (IT) and library and information studies programes must incorporate an IT component. Suggests a systematic approach to providing professionals with an IT knowledge base which is founded on a modified version of an educational taxonomy in the cognitive domain. 2 continua are constructed dealing with hardware and software knowledge bases. The software continuum consists of 3 levels: application, analysis/synthesis, and evaluation/creation. The hardware continuum consists of: comprehension, application and synthesis/evaluation. The depth of the knowledge base and degree of competency increases with each level. These continua may be used as guidelines in designing a comprehensive IT curriculum. Original abstract - amended.
15. "Effect of animation in enhancing descriptive and procedural texts in a multimedia learning environment". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Renaud. Journal of the American Society for Information Science; 47 (6), Jun 96, p.437-48.
Reports the Third and final phase of a research project to investigate the role of animation in enhancing recall and comprehension of text by grade 6 primary school students. Its aims were to: determine whether a complex descriptive text is enhanced by animation so long as the animation exhibits close semantic links with the text; to explore the importance of captions in linking an animation with a text so as to increase comprehension of that text; and to investigate the relationship between students' spatial skills and their ability to recall and comprehend a text enhanced with still images and animation. A descriptive text on the structure and functions of the heart from Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia was used. Original abstract-amended.
16. "PACE: a browsable graphical interface". J. Beheshti, A. Large, M. Bialek. Information Technology and Libraries; 15 (4), Dec 96, p.231-40.
PACE (Public Access Catalogue Extension) is an alternative user interface designed to enhance online public access catalogues (OPACs). PACE simulates images of books and library shelves to help users browse through the catalogue. Reports results of a study in which PACE was tested in a college library (Vanier College), in a real operational environment, against a second generation text based, online public access catalogue: Best-Seller. Results show that a simple browsable retrieval interface performed as well as a second generation OPAC in terms of retrieval speed and search success. The overwhelming majority of students, however, preferred the browsing capability of PACE through the familiar metaphor of books and library shelves to a text based OPAC. (Jamshid Beheshti may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]). Original abstract-amended.
17. "The evolving OPAC".J. Beheshti. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly; 24 (1/2) 1997, p.163-85.
Advances in computer and communication technology have had an important impact on online public access catalogues (OPACs). The client server architecture model, the Internet, protocols, and standards such as Z39.50 have resulted in newly designed interfaces which reduce syntactic and semantic knowledge required to conduct effective online searches. Experimental OPACs have been developed in an attempt to assist users in conceptual transformation of their information needs into searchable queries. These experiments are based primarily on determining users' behavior at the OPAC terminal, which needs much further study. Other non traditional models for storing and retrieving information should be considered to create an intuitive OPAC. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamtom, New York, 13904-1580, USA. E-Mail: [mailto:email@example.com]). (The author may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]). Original abstract.
18. "Information seeking in a multimedia environment by primary school students". A. Large, J. Beheshti, A. Breuleux. Library and Information Science Research; 20 (4) 1998, p.343-76.
19. "The Web as a classroom resource: reactions from the users". A. Large, J. Beheshti. Journal of the American Society for Information Science; 51 (12), Oct 2000, p.1069-80.
Presents and discusses interviews with 50 Canadian grade-6 primary school students about their experience of using the Web to find information for a class project. The children discussed the quantity and quality of textual and image information on the Web versus traditional print sources. They also discussed reasons why they made very little use of any moving images and sound clips on the Web, how they searched for information on the Web and the ways in which this differs from looking for information in printed sources. They demonstrated a sophistication in their appreciation of the Web's strengths and weaknesses as an information source and in their information retrieval strategies. The Web needs both a more straightforward interface and more information specifically aimed at the young before it can seriously threaten its rivals such as CD-ROMs and print materials. (Original abstract - amended)
20. "Designing and developing multimedia CD-ROMs: lessons from the Treasures of Islam". J. Beheshti, A. Large, H. Moukdad. Online Information Review; 25 (4) 2001, p.229-40.
The Treasures of Islam: Art and Design in Islamic Manuscript, is a multilingual and multimedia CD-ROM database containing rare Islamic works of art, that is designed and produced under fiscal constraints. The disparate rare materials are organized and presented through an intuitive interface based on a book metaphor for a diverse audience. The major portion of the cost (35 percent) was devoted to digitizing the images, texts, audio and video segments. Approximately 20 per cent of the production team's time was spent on interface design, while an equal amount of time was spent on analyzing and organizing the collection of materials for inclusion in the CD-ROM. The procedure and associated costs for developing this digital exhibition are discussed. (Original abstract)
21. "NLC's cataloguing service benefits Canadian libraries". J. Beheshti, A. Large, P. Riva. Feliciter; 48 (5) 2002, p.233-5.
Paper presented at the 30th annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science, 2002. Reports on a study for the National Library of Canada (NLC) to determine the dollar value of savings incurred by Canadian university and large public libraries as a result of using MARC records generated by the NLC rather than cataloguing these items themselves. Since Canadian material is only a tiny portion of library collections, NLC derived copy constitutes only a small part of the cataloguing. Finds difficulty in determining costs for copy and original cataloguing, noting shortcomings and making suggestions for improvement.
22. "Information architecture for the web: the IA matrix approach to designing children's portals". A. Large, J. Beheshti, C. Cole. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology; 53 (10) 2002, p.831-38.
Contribution to a special section on information architecture. Presents a matrix that can serve as a tool for designing the information architecture of a web portal in a logical and systematic manner. The information architecture begins by inputting the portal's objective, target user, and target content. The matrix then determines the most appropriate information architecture attributes for the portal by filling in the Applied Information Architecture portion of the matrix. Discusses how the matrix works using the example of a children's web portal to provide access to museum information. (Original abstract amended)
23. "Design criteria for children's web portals: the users speak out". A Large, J. Beheshti, T. Rahman. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology; 53 (2) Jan 2002, p.79-94.
Four focus groups were held with young web users (10 to 13 years of age) to explore design criteria for Web portals. The focus group participants commented upon four existing portals designed with young users in mind: Ask Jeeves for Kids, KidsClick, Lycos Zone and Yahooligans! Reports their first impressions on using these portals, their likes and dislikes and their suggestions for improvements. Design criteria for children's Web portals are elaborated based upon these comments under four headings: portal goals, visual design, information architecture and personalization. An ideal portal should cater for both educational and entertainment needs, use attractive screen designs based especially needs, use attractive screen designs based especially on effective use of colour, graphics and animation, provide both keyword search facilities and browsable subject categories and allow individual user personalization in areas such as colour and graphics. (Original abstract - amended)
24. "Gender differences in collaborative Web searching behavior: an elementary school study" A. Large, J. Beheshti, T. Rahman. Information Processing and Management; 38 (3) May 2002, p.427-33.
Reports the results of an empirical study into gender differences in collaborative Web searching conducted in a 6th grade class of a Canadian elementary school. Searches undertaken by 16 same sex groups of 2 or 3 students (6 boys, 10 girls) for information to support a class assignment were captured on videotape. Analysis revealed that the groups of boys formulated queries comprising fewer keywords than the girls, the boys spent less time on individual pages than the girls, the boys clicked more hypertext links per minute than the girls, and in general were more active online. Illustrates academic, affective and behaviour difference between the groups of boys and girls. (Original abstract)
25. "Focus groups with children: do they work?". A. Large, J. Beheshti. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science; 26 (2/3) Jun-Sep 2002, p.77-89.
Reports on an experiment with the organization of focus (consultation) groups with children to explore their opinions on currently available web based portals designed specifically for them, and how these might be improved, comprising the final stage of a project on the information seeking behaviour of elementary school children in electronic environments. Points out that if such sessions are to provide valid and reliable data, a number of factors relating specifically to children must be introduced.(Original abstract - amended)
26. "Cost savings to Canadian university and large urban public libraries from their use of National Library of Canada MARC records". Jamshid Beheshti, Andrew Large, Pat Riva. Library Resources and Technical Services; 47 (2) Apr 2003, P.44-57.
The authors present a study to determine the savings incurred by Canadian university and large urban public libraries as a result of using Canadiana printed monograph cataloging records generated by the National Library of Canada (NLC) rather than cataloging these items themselves. The study employed three methodologies: questionnaires were sent to 90 Canadian university and college libraries and to 30 member libraries of the Council of Administrators of Large Urban Public Libraries (CALUPL); follow-up telephone interviews were held with 18 university and 12 public libraries; and a sample of 100 bibliographic records for Canadiana printed documents was selected by the NLC from its catalog and then compared with records in a sample of 20 university and 10 public library OPACs to determine the extent to which NLC records form the basis for copy cataloging by other libraries. The saving per library through using NLC records as the basis for copy cataloging rather than originally cataloging items was $16,400 per annum for university libraries and $7,800 for large urban public libraries. An extrapolation to all university and large public libraries suggests an annual saving of $1,476,000 for all Canadian university libraries, and $249,000 for all Canadian large urban public libraries. Many libraries make use of NLC name or series authority data, and use NLC copy in their acquisitions processes or for other bibliographic purposes. The monetary benefits accruing to the libraries from these services and activities have not been quantified. (Original abstract).
27. "Visualization schemes for domain novices exploring a topic space: the navigation classification scheme". Jamshid Beheshti, Martin Brooks, Charles Cole, Andrew Large, John E. Leide. Information Processing and Management; 39 (6) Nov 2003, P.923-940
In this article and two other articles which conceptualize a future stage of the research program (Leide, Cole, Large, and Beheshti, submitted for publication; Cole, Leide, Large, Beheshti, and Brooks, in preparation), we map-out a domain novice user's encounter with an IR system from beginning to end so that appropriate classification-based visualization schemes can be inserted into the encounter process. This article describes the visualization of a navigation classification scheme only. The navigation classification scheme uses the metaphor of a ship and ship's navigator traveling through charted (but unknown to the user) waters, guided by a series of lighthouses. The lighthouses contain mediation interfaces linking the user to the information store through agents created for each. The user's agent is the cognitive model the user has of the information space, which the system encourages to evolve via interaction with the system's agent. The system's agent is an evolving classification scheme created by professional indexers to represent the structure of the information store. We propose a more systematic, multidimensional approach to creating evolving classification/indexing schemes, based on where the user is and what she is trying to do at that moment during the search session. (Original abstract).
Davarpanah, M R
1. "Level of information technology application in Iranian university libraries". M.R. Davarpanah. Library Review; 50 (9) 2001, p.444-50.
Reports results of a questionnaire survey of 55 out of the 79 university libraries known to exist in Iran, to examine the level of information technology (IT) application in university libraries in Iran, the level of IT application and the extent to which IT application would increase with increased IT expenditure and increased numbers of computers available. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between the level of IT application in two library groups (Culture and Higher Education (MCHE) and Health, Treatment and Medical Education (HTME) ministries) and the relationship between the level of IT application and the number of computers in use and the annual
expenditure on IT. (Original abstract - amended)
2- "Collection management in Iranian university libraries". M.R. Davarpanah. Herald of Library Science; 39 (1-2) Jan-Apr 2000, p.5-11.
Discusses the university libraries in Iran and their collection development against the background of the country's ethnic makeup and Farsi (Persian) language. Reports results of a survey of university libraries, including medical libraries, university libraries; and periodicals subscribed to. Highlights the importance given to audio-visual materials, manuscripts and rare books. Evaluates the relevance of available resources, problems of textbook provision, and the lack of acquisition policy encountered in the import of books and periodicals. Considers how the advent of library automation will affect the future of library services in Iran. (Original abstract - amended)
Farajpahlou, A H
1. . "Information technology in Iran: an overview of the infrastructure". A.H. Farajpahluo. Asian Libraries; 2 (2) Jul 92, p.34-46.
The development of an effective network of information management and communications in Iran is continuing after the devastating 10 year war with its neighbour, Iraq. Looks at the past, present, and future of information technology in Iran with regard to education, national policy, library automation. and communications manufacturing. Original abstract.
2. "Status of library automation in Iranian academic libraries". A.H. Farajpahluo. International Information and Library Review; 26 (2) Jun 94, p.107-37.
Illustrates the present state of automation in Iranian academic libraries. Reports the findings of a survey conducted in 1991. Describes the background of library automation in Iran, and explains the terms, methodology, and findings of the survey. Traces the development of library automation. Details recent developments and problems being encountered. Original abstract-amended.
3. "Defining some criteria for the success of automated library systems". A.H. Farajpahluo. Library Review; 48 (3 and 4) 1999, p.169-80.
Reports results of a questionnaire survey, conducted among Australian university libraries, to discover the attitudes of university library managers and systems managers and librarians to those factors which are believed to constitute success when implementing computerized library systems. A literature review identified 26 factors as criteria for the success of automated library systems. 23 of these criteria were approved by the survey sample and the other three were rejected. (Original abstract - amended)
4. "Criteria for the success of automated library systems: Iranian experience (application and test of the related scale)". A.H. Farajpahluo. Library Review; 51 (7) 2002, p.364-72.
Refers to a 1999 Australian survey which examined a 26 item scale developed regarding three major automated library systems issues, which approved 23 items that represented criteria for the success of automated library systems, and rejection of the remaining three items (Library Review, 48 (3 and 4) 1999, p.169-80). The same scale was translated into Farsi in the year 2000 and distributed among 240 library managers and systems librarians in 120 Iranian institutions of higher education. Results of the Iranian survey were acceptance of 24 out of the 26 scale items by university librarians and systems managers, and rejection of two items. The rejected items were not identical in the two studies, and the discrepancies mainly raised by 'boundary' issues. However, Australian and Iranian colleagues seem to be identical in their attitudes towards management, technicalities and usage of automated library systems. The scale, so far, has proved to be reliable and valid, at least with 21 of its items. (Original abstract)
5. “Content analysis of Iranian academic and research web-sites”. A.H. Farajpahluo. in: EurAsia-ICT 2002, Shiraz, Iran, October 2002. pp. 459-466.
6. "Collaboration among library and information experts vs. Scientists". A.H. Farajpahluo. in the proceedings of International Workshop on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics, 2-5 March 2004. Central Library, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India., pp. 91-98.
7. "Collaboration among experts in library and informaiton Science". A.H. Farajpahluo. Tehran Workshop on Scientometrics, 17-19 September, 2004, Tehran. pp. 168-185.
Fattahi, Rahmatollah, Ph. D.
1. "Online Library Catalogs: Developments and Characteristics". R. Fattahi. OFOGH: The Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (1994) vol. 1, no. 2: 46-51.
2. "Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and the Online Environment: a Literature Review" R. Fattahi. Cataloging and Classifications Quarterly (1995) vol. 20, no. 2: 25-50.
As a standard set of rules, AACR2 has received much attention in the literature of descriptive cataloguing. Considers that despite this extensive literature, an important aspect of the code, namely its relevance to the online environment, has not received much attention, particularly in terms of empirical research. Notes however that there is a general criticism that AACR2, being based on manual systems, does not correspond effectively to the online environment. From a review of the literature concludes that while the advent of online catalogues has changed both the internal structure and external appearance of library catalogues, a majority of writers consider that radical changes in the code are impossible and undesirable in the near future, owing to various factors such as the belief that the MARC format is not conducive to radical change and the large size of existing catalogues created according to the current rules. Original abstract-amended.
3. "A Comparison between the Online Catalogue and the Card Catalogue: Some Considerations for Redesigning Bibliographic Standards". R. Fattahi. Library Review (1995), vol. 44, no. 2: 44-58.
Suggests that an appropriate approach in comparing online and card catalogues is to compare the 2 in relation to the processes in which bibliographic records are created (the input stage), manipulated (the storage stage) and retrieved (the output stage). Studies the concepts underlying these processes and reveals major differences between online and card catalogues. These differences are multiplied and widened when moving from input to output to such an extent that online catalogues can be considered as a significant departure from manual catalogues. The redesign for use in an online environment of bibliographical standards which are based on the card catalogue should be based on conceptual as well as practical differences between the online and card catalogues. Original abstract-amended.
4. "A Comparison between the Online Catalogue and the Card Catalogue: Some Considerations for Redesigning Bibliographic Standards". R. Fattahi. OCLC Systems & Services (1995), vol. 11, no. 3: 28-38.
Online catalogues and card catalogues can be compared from different perspectives and according to different criteria. Compares the 2 types of catalogue according to the processes in which bibliographic records are created (input stage), manipulated (storage stage) and retrieved (output stage). The concepts underlying these stages are studied, revealing major differences between online and card catalogues, which are multiplied and widened when moving from input and output stage to such an extent that online catalogues can be considered as a significant departure from manual catalogues. The redesign for use in the online environment of bibliographic standards (cataloguing codes, MARC formats and ISBDs) which have been based on the concept of the card catalogue should instead be based on the conceptual as well as the practical differences between the online and the card catalogue. Original abstract.
5. "Super Records: An approach towards the Description of Works Appearing in Various Manifestations". R. Fattahi. Library Review, (1996), vol. 45, no. 4: 19-29.
Describes a new approach to describing bibliographic entities aimed at fulfilling all the functions of the catalogue in the online environment. While it is assumed that the basic unit of description is the item in hand and records describing items would fulfill the finding, identifying, choosing and locating functions; super records, which are based on the concept of `super works', would fulfill the collocating function in a more meaningful way. This approach is a solution to the problem of the same work appearing in various manifestations and formats. Super records for voluminous works include attributes that are common to different versions of a work and are linked to bibliographic records for items. Describes a prototype catalogue of super records that has been developed and made available on the Web to introduce the advantages, limitations and possible consequences of the concept on cataloguing principles, MARC and Z39.50. (This prototype catalogue of super records is available at http://wilma.silas.unsw.edu.au/students/ rfattahi/). Original abstract-amended.
6. "Cataloguing at the crossroads: Cataloguers have a lot to offer the information age". R. Fattahi. which has been published in Cataloguing Australia, 1996, vol. 22, nos. 3/4: 59-67.
Winning essay in the essay competition `Cataloguing at the crossroads'. The significance of the role of cataloguers, being responsible for organizing library collections and making them easily accessible to patrons, has been addressed not only by librarians themselves but also by scholars. However, with the advent of new technologies and the enormous changes that have happened in the ways that users access bibliographic information, the role of cataloguing in the online environment has been challenged. Addresses some of the present and future issues in cataloguing and the ways in which cataloguers can continue to provide effective access to bibliographic information. Original abstract - amended.
7. "A uniform approach to the indexing of cataloguing data in online library systems". R. Fattahi. Library Review, (1997), vol. 46, no. 5: 339-343.
Argues that in library cataloguing and for optional functionality of bibliographic records the indexing of fields and subfields should follow a uniform approach. This would maintain effectiveness in searching, retrieval and display of bibliographic information both within systems and between systems. However, a review of different postings to the AUTOCAT and USMARC discussion lists indicates that the indexing and tagging of cataloguing data do not, at present, follow a consistent approach in online library systems. If the rationale of cataloguing principles is to bring uniformity in bibliographic description and effectiveness in access, they should also address the question of uniform approaches to the indexing of cataloguing data. In this context and in terms of the identification and handling of data elements, cataloguing standards (codes, MARC formats and the Z39.50 standard) should be brought closer, in that they should provide guidelines for the designation of data elements for machine readable records. Original abstract.
8. "How doctoral studies can influence academic carees and practice". R. Fattahi. ELISA: Education for Library and Information Services: Australia, (1998), August, :61-63.
Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to research degrees in library and information science in Australia. A personal reflection on how a PhD contributes to the profession and to its holder's career.
9. "AACR2 and Catalogue Production Technology: Relevance of cataloguing principles to the online environment". R. Fattahi. in The Principles and Future Development of AACR: Proceedings of the International Conference on the principles and Future Development of AACR, Toronto, 23-25 October 1997. Edited by Jean Weihs.-- Chicago: ALA, Canadian Library Association, Library Association, 1998: 17-43.
10. "Library cataloguing and abstracting and indexing services: reconcilliation of the principles in the online nevironment?" R. Fattahi. Library Review, (1998), vol. 47, no. 4: 211-216.
With ever increasing developments in information technology and networks, end users of the online environment now have integrated access to a variety of bibliographic databases, mainly library catalogues and abstracting and indexing services, from a single terminal. While such a facility influences users' expectations and preferences in the searching, retrieval and presentation of bibliographic information, it raises an important question as to whether different bibliographic practices can use a similar or compatible set of principles for creating bibliographic records and files. Attempts to identify areas of possible reconciliation and some of the implications of such an issue. (Original abstract)
11. "Cataloguing principles in an online environment". R. Fattahi. LASIE; 29 (1) Mar 1999, p13-20
Paper based on research for a doctoral thesis which reassessed current cataloguing principles in the light of online features and capabilities. While most basic cataloguing principles do not clash with the online environment, there is a need for additional principles to secure more effective searching retrieval and display of bibliographic information. Basic cataloguing concepts relate to the nature of bibliographic entities rather than being dependent on the technology of catalogue construction. The electronic version of the thesis is available at: www.um.ac.ir/~fattahi/fattahi.HTM
12. "Librarianship in Iran since 1979". Z. Hayati and R. Fattahi. In: International Librarianship: cooperation and collaboration.-- Lanham, Maryland, Scarecrew Press, 2001. p275-290.
13. "Restructuring the Bibliographic Record for Better Management, Organization and Representation of Knowledge in the Global Online Environment: A New Approach" (full paper). Rahmatollah Fattahi and Mehri Parirokh. Presented at the 7th ISKO International Conference held in Granada, Spain (10-13 July 2002). Edited by Maria J. Lopez-Huertas and Francisco J. Munoz-Fernandez. Granada: Ergon Verlag, 2002. P107-112.
14. Parirokh, M. and Fattahi, R. "Creating organizational learning and learning organization: Management Experience in an Iranian university library, Presented at the International Conference on Information Management in an Information Society, Mumbai, India, Feb. 21-25, 2005. New Delhi, Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers, 2005.
15. Z. Hayati, R. Fattahi "Education for librarianship in Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution: An historical review of the American roles and influences".. Library Review (May 2005 - in publication)
16. Fattahi, R. and Afshar, E. Added value of information and information systems. (to be published in Library Review)
1. "A brief overview of professional journals in Iran". N. Ansari, S. Gezelayagh. Bookbird; 31 (4) Winter 93, p.13-14.
Contribution to an issue devoted mainly to the theme of: prospects for children's literature periodicals in the electronic age. Remarks on the fact that, although there are a number of periodicals in Iran which cover children's literature research, each periodical belongs to a particular private or government organization, each adheres to a special point of view, and each is tailored to a specific readership
1. "A comparison of citation similarities and index term similarities for linking subject related documents" Abbass Horri. Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microforms International, 1981, 129p.
(PhD thesis-Case Western Reserve University, Ohio). A measure of relatedness was computed between pairs of documents, based on the number of overlapping index terms and overlapping citations. The 2 measures were compared by calculating a correlation measure between them. The method was tested in an indexed collection of biomedical literature. Citations mostly provided the same clusters as the index terms did at a relatively low level of specificity.
2. "Librarianship and modern management". Abbass Horri. Iranian Library Association Bulletin; 8 (3) Autumn 75, [10p. Persian numberings].
Because the librarian has graduated from a mere custodian of books to one who has had to rethink the library's basic function and then to ensure that it achieves its objectives, the study of library administration has become a vital part of librarianship. A library can be called a kind of social system whose interaction with other such systems is inevitable. Therefore library administration means controlling a system that interacts with others, influences, and is influenced by them. Looks at 4 aspects of administration: internal organization; creating a communication network; using the comparative method (which has arisen from the need of administration to have an historical acquaintance with the library); and recognizing the goal.
1. "Evaluation of the reference collections of the Mulla Sadra Library in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics of the College of Arts and Sciences". Abdolrasool Jowkar. Shiraz, Iran, Pahlavi University, School of Graduate Studies, 1978, 47p.
(MLS thesis.) Evaluation of the reference collections in biology, chemistry and physics of the Mulla Sadra Library, College of Arts and Sciences. Interviewees stated that the library could satisfy 63% of their needs, whereas the study revealed a 37.57% accuracy. The library lacks work space and seating facilities. A qualified librarian is needed to help patrons and develop present collections.
2. "Teacher librarians and new curriculum needs in Iran". Abdolrasool Jowkar. M. Kinnell. Education Libraries Journal; 35 (1) Spring 92, p.11-19.
Compares the impact of educational innovation on school libraries in Iran with that in the UK and assesses the context within which teacher librarians are trained. Describes a research project which resulted in the development of a competency based education programme for teacher librarians in Iran. Considers the educational and training programmes needed to meet the needs of librarians supporting new curricula. Original abstract.
3. "A comparison between the competencies deemed necessary for teacher-librarians in Iran and those suggested by librarians from developing countries". Abdolrasool Jowkar. Education Libraries Journal; 35 (3) Autumn 92, p.47-57.
Describes a survey which investigates the viability of a single library education programme for the education of teacher-librarians in developing countries. Questionnaires were sent to 55 professional librarians in 29 different countries, of which 35 were returned. Analyses the data and compares the results with the outcome of a similar survey done for the education of teacher-librarians in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Concludes that a single library programme for developing countries is possible. Original abstract - amended
4. "A comparison between the competencies deemed necessary for teacher-librarians in Iran and those suggested by librarians from developing countries". Abdolrasool Jowkar. Aslib Proceedings; 44 (9) Sept 92, 323-327.
Reports on a survey which investigated the viability of a single library education programme for the education of teacher-librarians in developing countries during which questionnaires were sent to 55 professional librarians in 29 different countries, of which 35 replies were received, data were analyzed and the results compared with the outcome of a similar survey done for the education of teacher-librarians in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The overall view is that a single library programme for developing countries is possible. Original abstract--amended
5. "A comparison between the competencies deemed necessary for teacher-librarians in Iran and those suggested by librarians from developing countries". Abdolrasool Jowkar. International Information and Library Review; 24 (4) Dec 92, p.275-84.
A survey investigating the viability of a single library education programme for the education of teacher librarians in developing countries. Questionnaires were sent to 55 professional librarians in 29 different countries, of which 35 replies were received. Data were analyzed and the results were compared with the outcome of a similar survey done for the education of teacher librarians in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The overall view is that a single library programme for developing countries is possible. Original abstract-amended.
6. "Educating school librarians in Iran". Abdolrasool Jowkar. M. Kinnell. Libri; 43 (2) Apr-Jun 93, p.91-107.
School libraries are of especial significance in supporting the curriculum in developing countries such as Iran, where an innovative educational system is being implemented. Training librarians to fulfil their roles in this new context is therefore a priority. Research at Loughborough University, Department of Information and Library Studies, into educating school librarians resulted in the development of a competency based educational programme for Iranian teacher librarians. Original abstract-amended.
1. "The internationalization of MARC. Part 1: the emergence and divergence of MARC". M. Kokabi. Library Review; 44 (4) 1995, p.21-35.
Surveys the evolution and development of MARC formats for the digital encoding of bibliographic data from their beginnings in1968 at the Library of Congress to the present time, with particular emphasis on the development of 17 national formats. Examines the reasons for the divergence of MARC formats from each other as well as the early and recent trends in the development of national MARC formats. Original abstract-amended.
2. "The internationalization of MARC. Part II: some MARC formats based on USMARC". M. Kokabi. Library Review; 44 (6) 1995, p.38-45.
Surveys the development of various MARC formats out of USMARC. Considers the formats for Canada, France, Spain and Indonesia. Indicates the main points of difference between them and the influence of local requirements on their development. Original abstract-amended.
3. "The internationalization of MARC. Part III: some MARC formats based on UKMARC". M. Kokabi. Library Review; 44 (6) 1995, p.46-51.
Surveys the development of various MARC formats out of UKMARC. Considers the formats for Australia, Thailand, Italy and Singapore. Indicates the main points of difference between them and the influence of local requirements on their development. Original abstract-amended.
4. "The internationalization of MARC. Part 4: UNIMARC, some formats based on it and some other MARC formats". M. Kokabi. Library Review; 44 (7) 1995, p.8-33.
Discusses the problems associated with the requirements for international standards for the exchange of bibliographic records in machine readable form, including the roles of national bibliographies and national libraries; a lack of international cataloguing standards and subject control systems; language difficulties; character sets and codes, and non roman alphabets. Suggests that these problems lie behind the development of various MARC formats out of UNIMARC. In this final part of a 4 part article describes the formats for South Africa, Taiwan, Japan, Croatia and Germany and indicates the points of difference and the influence of local requirements. Original abstract-amended
5. "Is the future of MARC assured?". M. Kokabi. Library Review; 45 (2) 1996, p.68-72.
Contribution to a Festschrift for Alan Edward Jeffreys who died on 6 Aug 94 after serving as sub librarian at the Robinson Library, Newcastle upon Tyne University, UK, since 1967. The machine readable catalogue (MARC) is now more than 20 years old. It has been, and still is, criticized from different points of view. Reviews some of the positive and negative opinions on MARC, as expressed by different sectors of the profession, and studies the future of MARC in relation to technological innovations. Concludes that MARC remains a valuable means of communicating bibliographical information. Original abstract-amended.
6. "The internationalization of MARC. Part 1: the emergence and divergence of MARC". M. Kokabi. OCLC Systems and Services; 12 (1) 1996, p.21-31.
Surveys the evolution and development of MARC formats for the digital encoding of data, from their beginnings in 1968 at the Library of Congress to the present time, with particular emphasis on the development of 17 examples of national MARC formats. Examines the reasons for the divergence of MARC formats from each other as well as the early and recent trends in the development of national MARC formats. Original abstract.
7. "The internationalization of MARC. Part II: some MARC formats based on USMARC". M. Kokabi. OCLC Systems and Services; 12 (2) 1996, p.21-6.
Surveys the development of various MARC formats which have grown out of USMARC. Considers the formats for Canada, France, Spain and Indonesia, indicating their main differences and local requirements. Original abstract.
8. "The internationalization of Marc. Part III: some MARC formats based on UKMARC". M. Kokabi. OCLC Systems and Services; 12 (3) 1996, p.8-11.
Surveys the evolution and development of various MARC formats out of UKMARC. Describes the formats for Australia, Thailand, Italy and Singapore, indicating their main points of difference and local requirements. Original abstract.
9. "Is the future of MARC assured?". M. Kokabi. OCLC Systems and Services; 12 (3) 1996, p.33-6.
The MARC machine readable catalogue is now more than 20 years old. It has been, and still is, criticized from different points of view. Reviews some positive and negative opinions on MARC as expressed by different sectors of the profession, and considers its future in relation to technological innovations. MARC remains a valuable means of communicating bibliographical information. Original abstract.
10. "The internationalization of MARC, part IV: UNIMARC, some formats based on it and some other MARC formats". M. Kokabi. OCLC Systems and Services; 12 (4) 1996, p.20-37.
Discusses some of the problems associated with the requirements and prospects for international standards for the exchange of bibliographic records in machine readable form: the various roles of national bibliographies and national libraries; the lack of international cataloguing standards and of an international subject control system; language difficulties; character sets and codes; and non roman alphabets. Explains how these problems lie behind the development of various MARC formats out of UNIMARC. This final part of a 4 part article then goes on to describe the formats for South Africa, Taiwan, Japan, Croatia and Germany, highlighting points of difference and local requirements. Original abstract.
11. "The Iranian adaptation of UNIMARC". M. Kokabi. International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control; 26 (3) Jul /Sep 1997, p.63-65.
Outline of a thesis produced at the University of New South Wales School of Information, Library and Archive Studies, the first serious study of MARC for Iran despite 12 years of the presence of computers in Iranian libraries. Considers the various MARC formats, reasons for choosing UNIMARC, and the use of the Farsi language in machines. Lists the modifications required to UNIMARC for use in the Iranian National Bibliography.
1. "DVD: the next evolutionary step for publishing multimedia reference sources". K. kousha. Online and CD-ROM Review; 23 (4) Aug 1999, p.203-5.
Reviews recent trends in the publishing of DVD multimedia reference sources, discusses the advantages of DVD-ROMs over CD-ROMs and the gigabyte storage potential of the technology. Concludes that DVD acceptance is likely to take time but will eventually bring significant changes to the process of designing and developing multimedia sources when librarians recognize its advantages as well as its pitfalls, (The author may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:email@example.com]).
2. "Experience of Librarians in Design and Development of the National Web Directory of Iranian Sites, Iranhoo". K. kousha. Faslnameh- Ketab, Quarterly Journal of National Library of Iran, 14(4), (2004), p349-358.
3. "The Relationship between Scholarly Publishing and the Counts of Academic Inlinks to Iranian University Web Sites: Exploring Academic Link Creation Motivations". K. kousha, Abbas Horri. In Proceedings of International Workshop on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics, March 2-5, 2004, edited by Hildrun Kretschmer, Yogendra Singh and Ramesh Kundra, Roorkee: Indian Institute of Technology, India, (2004), p136-149.
4. "Iran's National ICT Education Plan: an Overview of the Possibilities, Problems and the Programs". Kayvan Kousha, Mahshid Abdoli. 70th IFLA General Conference and Council, August 22th - 27th 2004, Buenos Aires, Argentina, (2004) .
5. "Motivations for URL citations to open access library and information science articles". K. Kousha, M. Thelwall. In: 10th International Conference Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI), Stockholm, 24-28 July, 2005.
6. "Extracting Macroscopic Information from Sources of URL Citation to Scholarly Open Access Journals: A Webometrics Approach". K. kousha. 71st IFLA General Conference and Council, August 2005, Oslo, Norway. (2005, to appear)
7. "Webometrics and Scholarly Communication: An Overview". K. Kousha. Faslenameh Ketab, Quarterly Journal of the National Library of Iran. (2005, to appear)
1. "A national public library system for Iran: a descriptive analysis1948-1978 and a plan for development". Jafar Mehrad. Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfms International, 1979, 259p.
(PhD thesis-Case Western Reserve University.) Evaluates the current status of public libraries in Iran in order to identify the problems and assess the opportunities and resources that can be conducive to create and develop a plan permitting extension of public library services on a national level. Investigates the problems concerning all aspects of public librarianship and, in particular, the structure, personnel, services, collection, and physical facilities, as derived from a comprehensive nationwide questionnaire. Presents a long-range public library action plan, and a set of general standards covering all aspects of library development has been incorporated.
1. "Towards a Model of User-oriented Aspects of the Invisible Web". Y. Mansourian. Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Monday 8th December 2003.
This is a preliminary report of the initial phases of a study investigating hidden parts of the World Wide Web increasingly referred to as the "Invisible Web". A review of the literature suggests that the Invisible Web has been neglected in studies of Web-based information seeking and retrieval to date, apart from a number of relatively descriptive papers. The present research is motivated by the need for systematic empirical research into this phenomenon. User aspects would seem to be particularly under-researched. In the first part of this presentation, widely-accepted definitions of the Invisible Web including the "Opaque", the "Deep", the "Private", the "Proprietary", and the "Truly Invisible" Web will be introduced. In the second part of the presentation, the results of a qualitative pilot study into user-aspects of the Invisible Web will be presented. This pilot study focused on people's awareness and perceptions of the Invisible Web in their information seeking. The presentation will conclude with an indication of the next stages of this research and how it is intended to develop a model of information seeking that includes consideration of the effects of the Invisible Web.
2. "Technical and Non-technical Aspects of the Invisible Web". Y. Mansourian. Informology, (2004) Vol. 1, No 2, pp. 221-237.
3. "Intelligent Search Agents and Information Seeking through the Web Environment". Y. Mansourian. Informology, (2004) Vol. 1, No 4.
4. "Similarities and Differences between Web Search Procedure and Searching in the Pre-web Information Retrieval Systems". Y. Mansourian. Webology [Online], (2004) Vol.
1, No. 1, Available at: http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n1/a3.html
This paper presents an introductory discussion about the commonalities and dissimilarities between Web searching procedure and the searching process in the previous online information retrieval systems including classic information retrieval systems and database. The paper attempts to explain which factors make these two groups different, why investigating about the search process on the Web environment is important, how much we know about this procedure and what are the main lines of research in front of the researchers in this area of study and practice. After presenting the major involved factor the paper concludes that although information seeking process on the Web is fairly similar to the pre-web systems in some ways, there are notable differences between them as well. These differences may provide Web searcher and Web researchers with some opportunities and challenges.
5. "Review of: Spink, A., & Jansen, B. J. Web Search: Public Searching of the Web. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004". Y. Mansourian. Webology [Online], (2004) Vol. 1 No.2 Available at: http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n2/bookreview1.html
6. "Searching the Invisible Web: An Empirical Study of Users’ Interactive Searching Behaviour in the Opaque Side of the Web Environment". Y. Mansourian. In: the Proceeding of the 18th British HCI Group Annual Conference in Leeds Metropolitan University, UK 6-10 September(2004). pp. 231-232.
7. "What is the Invisible Web? The Annual Interdisciplinary". Y. Mansourian. Conference for Postgraduate Students in the Social Sciences and the Arts, the University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Thursday 22 April 2004.
8. "End Users’ Perceptions of the Invisible Web and their Conceptualization of Information Retrieval Failure on the Web". Y. Mansourian. Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Wednesday 20th October 2004. [online abstract] : http://dis.shef.ac.uk/mark/duties/YazdanMansourian.htm
This research aims to identify those factors that most affect users ‘ conceptualizations of their information retrieval failure on the web; and it attempts to explain the role of each factor identified. Another aim of the study is to analyse the actions and strategies of people who obtain unsatisfactory search results. The project also intends to investigate the relationship between people’s conceptualisations of their information retrieval failure and their perceptions of the invisible web.
This presentation explains why research on the invisible web requires more qualitative approaches than quantitative ones as the invisible web is not a concrete phenomenon and the Web cannot simply be divided into visible and invisible sections. Accordingly, in preference to discussing the invisible web, I will be talking in terms of “levels of visibility”.
The concept of the levels of visibility has been developed after exploring related literature and carrying out preliminary PhD research in the department of Information Studies at the University of Sheffield. What emerged from this research is the fact that, what is invisible on the web to one user, is easily found by another. Differences in perceptions of the invisible web vary according to many factors, including the user’s computer skills, previous experiences, subject knowledge, and familiarity to the search topic.
9. "Failure Ontologies: Conceptualizing Unsuccessful Searches (FOCUS)". Y. Mansourian, N. Ford, S. Webber. Poster Presentation at Annual Advisory Panel. Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, on Tuesday 5th April 2005.
10. "Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Human Information Seeking Behaviours". Y. Mansourian. The Annual Interdisciplinary Conference for Postgraduate Students in the Social Sciences and Humanities, the University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Thursday 7th April 2005.
1. "The IRANDOC Publication Department". N. Moradi. First Southwest Asian Documentation Centre Conference Proceedings, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Apr 5-9, 1970, Tehran.
1. "Information and society: a concise case study of Iran". A.R. Baveh, N. Naghshineh. First Asian Information Meeting. Proceedings of the Conference, Hong Kong, 27-30 September 1995. Oxford, Learned Information (Europe) Ltd, 1995, p.233-6.
Proceedings of the First Asian Information Meeting, Hong Kong, 27-30 Sep 95. A large factor in the development or under development of information services in any given country is the society's perception of their importance in its decision making process. Considers Iran as a case study, where it was found that the only successful information services were those that had adopted a result orientated approach to management and had vigorous user training programmes. The growth of the Iranian information service took place following the end of the war with Iraq with the influx of research and combat engineers in both the private and government sectors. A society's appreciation of and willingness to invest in information services is a function of its socioeconomic and cultural makeup. (The Nader Naghshineh may be contacted by electronic mail [mailto:DIALOG@NEDA.NET.IR]). Original abstract-amended.
2. "The force of change: libraries as a social instrument: a concise case study of Iran". N. Naghshineh. Library Review; 47 (3 and 4) 1998, p.225-9.
In spite of the rapid growth in both scope and diversity of information available, the development of information services has not been the same everywhere. A large factor in development, or underdevelopment, of information services in any given country is a function of society's perception of the importance of such services in its decision making process. Iran has been treated as a case study. Regardless of its cultural diversity Iran has still to get to grips with the question of freedom of information. The pace of social and technological development has caught many statesmen unprepared. Past studies had indicated that, in Iran, only those information services that had adopted a result oriented approach to management, and had vigorous user education programmes, are successful. The growth of Iranian information services took place following the end of the war, with the influx of research and combat engineers in both the private and government sectors. (Original abstract - amended)
3. "Wireless resource management using genetic algorithm for mobiles equilibrium". M. Moustafa, I. Habinb, N. Naghshineh. Computer Networks; 37 (5) Nov 2001, p.631-43.
Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: QoS for IP networks. Resource scheduling is essential in order to provide suitable signal quality and to achieve good channel efficiency in wireless mobile networks. A novel algorithm is proposed for controlling the transmitter power and transmission rate of mobile calls cooperatively. Previous work has focused on handling them separately. The proposed scheme is called the genetic algorithm for mobiles equilibrium. Based on an evolutionary computation model, the base station (BS) tries to achieve an adequate equilibrium for its users: each mobile station (MS) can send its traffic with the minimum power to compensate for its own path loss and interference. Thus, the MSs battery life is extended while simultaneously reducing the interference it generates, as seen by its neighbours. The result is that the BS will be able to handle additional users since it controls both transmission power and rate instead of regulating power only. (Original abstract)
4. "A comparative case study of graduate courses in library and information studies in the UK, USA, India and Iran: lessons for Iranian LIS professionals". L. Morteyaie N. Naghshineh. Library Review; 51 (1and2) 2002, p.14-23.
The Iranian library and information science (LIS) curriculum has not kept pace with even the domestic market demand. A study in comparative librarianship education was carried out for curricula revamping. The most significant features of library and information science graduate programmes were: diversity of courses offered; university independence; diversity of degrees offered; ease and flexibility of the higher education system; updated course programmes; emphasis on research; course and curricula development. There seems to be a direct correlation between the efficiency of the courses offered with the state of information industry in the countries studied. There is a widening chasm between LIS education in developing countries and those in developed countries. Without any significant restructuring, the LIS programme in Iran will provide little in the way of riding out the rapid transition that the field is currently experiencing. (The authors may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:Mortezai@Irandoc.ac.ir] and [mailto:Dialog@neda.net]). (Original abstract)
1. "Conservation of library materials in Iran". M. Niknam. Conservation Administration News; (46) July 91, 6-7.
Revision of a paper presented at the International conference on Book and Paper Conservation in Budapest, Sept 90. Discusses the state-of-the-art of conservation, preservation and restoration in Iran focusing on activities in the following institutions: Astan Qouds Razavi Central Library in Mashhad; the National Archive of Iran; the Cultural Heritage Organisation; and the National Library of Iran. 00 A.G.
1. "Editorial: A Note on Webology". A. Noruzi. Webology, (2004). Vol. 1, No. 1, Editorial.Availableat:http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n1/editorial1.html
2. "Introduction to Webology". A. Noruzi. Webology. (2004) Vol. 1, No. 1, Article 1. Available at: http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n1/a1.html
3. "Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web". A. Noruzi. Webology, (2004) Vol. 1, No. 2, Article 8. Available at: http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n2/a8.html
4. "The Web Impact Factor: a survey of some Iranian university web sites". A. Noruzi. Informology, (2005). Submitted to: (Persian language with an English abstract).
5. "The Web Impact Factor: a critical review". A. Noruzi. Cybermetrics, (2005) Submitted to: http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/
6. "Aplicação das Leis de Ranganathan na Web". A. Noruzi. ExtraLibris, 2. Translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Moreno Barros.(2005). Available at: http://www.extralibris.info/arquivos/2005/02/aplicacao_das_l.html
7. "Web Impact Factors for Iranian Universities". A. Noruzi. Webology, (2005). Vol. 2, No. 1, Submitted to.
1. "Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: a review of the literature I". F. Osareh. Libri; 46 (3) Sep 96, p.149-58.
Part 1 of a 2 part article reviewing the technique of bibliometrics and one of its most widely used methods, citation analysis. Traces the history and development of bibliometrics, including its definition, scope, role in scholarly communication and applications. Treats citation analysis similarly with particular reference to bibliographic coupling and cocitation coupling.
2. "Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: a review of the literature II". F. Osareh. Libri; 46 (4) Dec 96, p.217-25.
Part 2 of a 2 part article reviewing the technique of bibliometrics and one of its most widely used methods, citation analysis (for part 1 see LISA ref.9702529). Reports on studies of author co citation, periodical by periodical citation analysis and country by country citation analysis in addition to the mapping of science as an application of citation analysis. Considers the limitations, problems and reliability of citation analysis. Original abstract-amended.
3. "Third world countries (TWC) research publications by disciplines: a country by country citation analysis". F. Osareh. Scientometrics; 39 (3) Jul-Aug 97, p.253-66.
Discusses the publications of Third World Countries (TWC) in the Science Citation Index by discipline. TWC documents which were nationally cross linked at least 20 times were identified and their citing documents categorized into 7 disciplines. Discusses the top 12 TWC vis-a-vis their population, Gross National Product, and the extent of participation using observed rates of contribution in each discipline and expected rates based on numbers of citations received. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile appeared most frequently in the top 5 ranks in each of the 7 disciplines; however, none of these countries had either the largest population or the highest GNP per capita. Original abstract‑amended.
4. "A comparison of Iranian scientific publications in the Science Citation Index: 1985-1989 and 1990-1994". F. Osareh, C.S. Wilson. Scientometrics; 48 (3) Jul-Aug 2000, p.427-42.
Compares Iranian scientific publications in the Science Citation Index for two five year periods, 1985-1989 and 1990-1994. Distributions of various attributes of the publication output for the two periods were obtained primarily through the Rank command of the Dialog Online System. Results include: productivity by publication year and by ranked order of the most productive Iranian authors; influence or impact of the most productive Iranian authors by ranking them as cited authors; collaboration of Iranian scientists with scientists from other countries; and the journals Iranian scientists published in and the journals they cite in their papers. The subject areas of Iran's scientific publications were examined vis a vis the world's publication output and that of the Third World Countries. (Original abstract)
5. "Collaboration in Iranian scientific publications". F. Osareh, C.S. Wilson. Libri; 52 (2) Jun 2002, p.88-98.
This study looks at international collaboration in Iranian scientific publications through the ISI Science Citation Index (SCI) for the years 1995-1999, inclusively. These results are compared to and contrasted with the earlier findings for the periods covering 1985-1994 (Scientometrics, 48 (3) 2000, 427-442). The results of Iran's increasing productivity over a 15-year period are presented. Iran doubled its output in the first two five-year periods and increased 2.8-fold from the second to the third five-year period. The rise in Iran's scientific publication output is due mainly to factors such as the ending of the war, better economic conditions, recent changes in the Iranian government's policy, basic changes in the political environment brought about by the Reformers, expansion of the Iranian presses for national publications and the recent return of a large number of students trained overseas through government scholarships. External changes also account for the increased productivity, as did increased access to international databases through the Internet and better electronic communication facilities for international collaboration. One of the most important and significant factors that caused this dramatic rise seems to be the government's research policies in recent years. Since 1999, the Iran Science, Research and Technology Ministry, has encouraged researchers to publish their non-Farsi language articles in highly ranked international scientific journals, for example, by giving prizes to researchers who publish their articles in ISI-ranked periodicals. (The authors may be contacted by electronic mail at[mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org] and [mailto:email@example.com]). (Original abstract)
Parirokh, Mehri, Ph. D.
1. "A Comparison between user education practice in Australian university libraries and a model of effective user education programs". M. Parirokh. In: Programs That Work. Papers and session materials presented at the Twenty-fourth National LOEX Library Instruction Conference, edited by Linda Shirato. Ann Arbor: Michigan, 1997. p. 121-131.
2. "Restructuring the bibliographic record for better management, organization and representation of knowledge in the global online environment: a new approach". R. Fattahi, M. Parirokh. Proceeding of the 7th Isoko International Conference, 10-13 July 2002, Grananda, Spain, 2002.
3. "Creating organizational learning and learning organization: Management Experience in an Iranian university library". R. Fattahi, M. Parirokh. Presented at the International Conference on Information Management in an Information Society, Mumbai, India, Feb. 21-25, 2005. New Delhi, Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers, 2005.
1. "Why use information and communications technology? Some theoretical and practical issues". C. Cloke, S. Sharif. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education; 10 (1and2) 2001, p.7-18.
Contribution to special issue on information and communications technology (ICT) and pedagogy. Discusses theoretical issues of pedagogy and how they relate to the use of ICT in teaching. Reviews the context of recent developments in ICT pedagogy, and draws upon thinking about pedagogy which derives from learning theories. Provides a theoretical framework for research into the Smart School initiative in Malaysian schools. Presents some early impressions of this initiative, which involves the use of ICT and a refocusing of the learning agenda. The initiative is attempting to change the pedagogy of Malaysian schools in a radical way. (Original abstract - amended)
2. "The potential costs and benefits of long-term prefetching for content distribution". A. Venkataramani, P. Yalagandula, R. Kokku, S. Sharif, M. Dahlin. Computer Communications; 25 (4) 1 March 2002, p.367-75.
Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: Sixth International Web Content Caching and Distribution Workshop, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, 20-21 June 2001. Examines the costs and potential benefits of long-term prefetching for content distribution. In traditional short-term prefetching, caches use recent access history to predict and prefetch objects likely to be referenced in the near future. In contrast, long-term prefetching uses long-term steady state object access rates and update frequencies to identify objects to replicate to content distribution locations. Compared to demand caching, long-term prefetching increases network bandwidth and disk space costs but may benefit a system by improving hit rates. Using analytic models and trace-based simulations, we examine algorithms for selecting objects for long-term prefetching. We find that although the Zipf-like popularity distribution of web objects makes it challenging to prefetch enough objects to significantly improve hit rates, systems can achieve significant benefits at modest costs by focusing on long-lived objects. (Original abstract - amended)
1. "Dr. Nasser Sharify: a versatile librarian". Anis Khurshid, N. Sharify. Herald of Library Science; 28 (1-2) Jan-Apr 89, 65-69
Presents an account of the career of Dr. Nasser Sharify from his early days in Iran and India to his work in US libraries. 00 N.L.M.
2. "Thoughts on a changing profession: Kaula Endowment Lecture". N. Sharify. Herald of Library Science; 29 (1-2) Jan-Apr 1990, 70-75.
Explains the changing role of the library over the centuries from being storehouses of recorded knowledge to being bridges between materials and users and to contributing actively to the educational process. Considers the global role of the library and factors which promote this concept focusing on the situation in the developing countries where needs and resources are very different and where attention should be devoted to the human element in education and respect for the diversity of cultures and their aspirations. 00 A.G.
Shiri, Ali Asghar
1. "Library buildings in 1981". Bette Lee Fox, Rosenthal, A.A. Shiri, D Joleen. Library Journal; 106 (21) 1 Dec 81, 2277-2286.
Library Journal's annual survey of academic and public library construction and remodelling reveals: more money went into additions and renovations rather than new constructions; a dip in federal funding; and an increase in gift and local funds. Lists costs, area, equipment cost, book and seating capacity and names the architect for each institution newly built or renovated.
2. "JSIS: an Iranian specialized information center". A. Shiri. Journal of Government Information; 24 (2) Mar/Apr 97, p.85-92.
Jahad Sazandegi Information Services (JSIS), one of the leading government information services in Iran, began attempting to provide information support for approximately 60 research and education centres of the Ministry of Jahad Sazandegi in Aug 93. Describes the various activities of JSIS including technical services, document delivery services, electronic referral services, current awareness, and networking services. Original abstract-amended.
3. "JSIS : Building Blocks of an Effective Information Management Structure". A. Shiri. Proceedings of FID 49th conference and Congress,11-17 October 1998, New Delhi, India.
4. "Cybermetrics: A New Horizon in Information Research". A. Shiri. Proceedings of FID 49th Conference and Congress, 11-17 October 1998, New Delhi, India.
5. "Report on the BCS/IRSG 22nd Annual Colloquium on Information Retrieval Research" . A. Shiri. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, England, 5-7 April 2000". Journal of Information Science.Vol.26, Number 4, 2000. pp. 286 - 288.
6. " Thesauri on The Web: Current Developments and Trends". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie. Online Information Review.Vol. 24, Number 4, 2000. pp.273 - 279.
Reviews recent developments in the application of thesauri in information organization and retrieval on the World Wide Web. Describes some recent thesaurus projects undertaken to facilitate resource description and discovery and access to wide-ranging information resources on the Internet. Types of thesauri available on the Web, thesauri integrated in databases and information retrieval systems and multiple-thesaurus systems for cross-database searching are also discussed. Collective efforts and events in addressing the standardisation and novel applications of thesauri are briefly reviewed. (Original abstract)
7. " User - Thesaurus Interaction in a Web-Based Database: An Evaluation of Users' Term Selection Behaviour". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie. In: Proceedings of the Infotech Oulu International Workshop on Information Retrieval, Oulu, Finland, September 19-21, 2001. pp. 23 - 32.
8. "Assessing the Impact of User Interaction with Thesaurual Knowledge Structures: A Quantitative Analysis Framework". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie, Gobinda Chowdhury. In: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: integration of knowledge across boundaries: Proceedings of the 7th Internationl Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) Conference, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002.
9. "Thesaurus-Assisted Search Term Selection and Query Expansion: A Review of User-Centred Studies". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie, Gobinda Chowdhury. Knowledge Organization, vol. 29 Number 1, 2002. pp.1-19.
Provides a review of the literature related to the application of domain specific thesauri in the search and retrieval process. Focusing on studies that adopt a user centred approach, presents a survey of the methodologies and results from empirical studies undertaken on the use of thesauri as sources of term selection for query formulation and expansion during the search process. Summarizes the ways in which domain specific thesauri from different disciplines have been used by various types of users and how these tools aid users in the selection of search terms. (Original abstract - amended)
10. "Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces" A. Shiri, Crawford Revie, Gobinda Chowdhury. Journal of Information Science. Vol.28, Number 2, 2002. pp.111-122.
User interfaces to information retrieval systems play a major role in assisting users to search, browse and retrieve information relevant to their needs. Reviews a category of information retrieval interfaces that are enhanced by incorporating standard thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. A brief account of the rationale behind the integration of thesauri as search aids in such interfaces is provided, based on researchliterature related to information searching behaviour, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection and query expansion. Two categories of search interfaces enhanced with thesauri are examined: those associated with research-based programmes and commercial world wide web based interfaces to bibliographic databases. Six commercial web based databases are compared in terms of their thesaurus interface features. It is concluded that, although the number of thesaurus-enhanced interfaces is growing, few studies have focused on user interaction with these interfaces or fully explored the ways in which they can assist users in the search process. (The author may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]). (Original abstract)
11. "Schemas and Ontologies: Building a Semantic Infrastructure for the Grid and Digital Libraries: Workshop Report". A. Shiri. Library Hi Tech News Vol. 20, Number 7, 2003.
12. "Interoperability in Subject Searching and Browsing". A. Shiri, Dennis Nicholson. OCLC Systems & Services, Vol. 19, Number 2, 2003. pp. 58 - 61.
13. "Digital Library Research: Current Developments and Trends". A. Shiri. Library Review, Vol. 52, Number 5, 2003. pp.198 - 202. (among the Library Review top three downloaded articles in 2003).
14. "The Effects of Topic Complexity and Familiarity on Cognitive and Physical Moves in a Thesaurus-enhanced Search Environment". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie. Journal of Information Science, Vol. 29, Number 6, 2003. pp. 517-526.
This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of search topic characteristics on cognitive and physical search moves within the interface of a thesaurus-enhanced information retrieval environment. Topic characteristics examined here are topic complexity, topic familiarity, search type and prior topic search experience. The data gathering techniques adopted in this investigation included pre- and post-search questionnaires, transaction logs and post-session interviews. Thirty academic staff and postgraduate researchers from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Glasgow participated in this study. Each participant conducted three searches based on their research information needs. The results show that complex topics are associated with significantly more cognitive and physical moves. However, it is perhaps equally important to note that the results indicate that variation in the other topic characteristics did not demonstrate any significant difference in the number of cognitive or physical moves. (Original abstract)
15. "End-users Cognitive and Physical Moves in a Thesaurus-enhanced Search Environment: The Effect of Subject Knowledge". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie. In Innovations through Information Technology. Proceedings of the Information Resources Management Association International Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, May 23 - 26, 2004.
16. "End-user Interaction with Thesauri: An Evaluation of Cognitive Overlap in Search Term Selection". A. Shiri, Crawford Revie. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), London, 13-16 July 2004.
17. "End-user Interaction with Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces: an Evaluation of Search Term Selection for Query Expansion". A. Shiri. Association for Comupting Machinery Special Interest Group in Information Retrieval ACMSIGIR Forum. Vol. 38, No 1, 2004, p.80.
18. "Subject Searching Requirements: The HILT II Experience". Emma McCulloch, A. Shiri, Dennis Nicholson. Library Review, Vol. 53 Number 8, 2004. pp.408-414.
19. "User Evaluation of a Pilot Terminologies Server for a Distributed Multi-scheme Environment". A. Shiri, Dennis Nicholson, Emma McCulloch. Online Information Review. Vol. 28, Number 4, 2004. pp 273 - 283.
20. "Challenges and Issues in Terminology Mapping: A Digital Library Perspective". Emma McCulloch, A. Shiri, Dennis Nicholson. The Electronic Library. (in press)
1. "Sending librarians abroad". P. Soltani, A. Sinai, J.F. Harvey. International Library Review; 3 (2) Apr 71, 229-237.
2. " Problems of editing a library journal in a developing country". P. Soltani. Iranian Library Association Bulletin; 8 (2) Summer 75, [15p].
(Note. This abstract has been prepared from an English summary). Briefly outlines the problems encountered by developing countries in producing publications for the library profession. The specific situation in Iran is described with reference to ILA Bulletin. The problems of publishing library journals fall into three categories: (1) manpower; (2) readers; (3) financial and technical problems. There are few professional librarians, and younger students haven't enough experience to do quality research, facilities for which are lacking. Authors must be found; often volunteered material is too specialised or of low quality. Readers fall into diverse categories, each with individualized reading expectations which the one journal must satisfy without being inconsistent or lowering standards. Finance is the most important problem.
3. "The Tehran Book Processing Centre (TEBROC) and its research function: Part 1". P. Soltani. International Cataloguing; 4 (1) Jan/Mar 75, 7-8.
4. "The Tehran Book Processing Centre (TEBROC) and its research function: part II". P. Soltani. International Cataloguing; 4 (2) Apr/June 75, 4-6.
5. "Problems of editing a library journal in a developing country". P. Soltani. IFLA Journal; 2 (3) 1976, 147-153.
Paper presented at the IFLA General Council Meeting (Round Table of the Editors of Library and Documentation Journals), Oslo, Aug 75. For abstract see 76/30.
6. "The role of processing centres in developing countries in relation to resource sharing". P. Soltani. Resource sharing of libraries in developing countries., edited by H.D.L. Vervliet. Munich, K.G. Saur, 1979 Resource sharing of libraries in developing countries. Proceedings of the 1977 IFLA / Unesco Pre session Seminar for Librarians from Developing Countries, Antwerp University, August 30 September 4, 1977, 136-142.
Resource sharing is both too early and unrealistic for most developing countries. The need is neither present nor felt and the problems are numerous. What is most needed is national bibliographical control. In order to share the resources one has to know where the resources are. That is why a national processing centre, whether independent or attached to the national library, is vital to the developing countries. Its role should be research, development and bibliographical control, thus paving the way for the future need of resource sharing. The Tehran Book Processing Centre is given as a case study and its problems and progress are discussed.
7. "Library education across the boundaries of cultures: a festschrift". Anis Khurshid, A. Moid, J.H. Shera, M.H. Aman, O. Mohammed, P. Soltani, Syed Jalaluddin Haider, H. Goldstein, P.N. Kaula, P. Havard Williams, A. Neelameghan, P.B. CArino. Pakistan, University of Karachi, Department of Library Science,1981, 190p.
The Department of Library Science of the University of Karachi has published this Festschrift to mark the Silver Jubilee celebration of the country's First graduate library school, founded at Karachi University in 1956. Contains 10 articles written by eminent library educators from the USA, UK, Muslim world, India and the Philippines on the vital subject of education for library and information work. Articles deal with the educational problems of the developing countries in general and Muslim countries in particular in meeting the increasing challenges in the handling of information. Presents a useful searching overview of library education in the 1980s.
8. "Iranian national bibliography: an approach to new standards". P. Soltani. International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control; 18 (2) Apr/June 1989, 30-32.
Reviews current work being undertaken, by the National Library of Iran, on the Iranian National Bibliography. Describes the change in format and the new arrangement since 1983 and the problems encountered including: languages; authority control; subject access; and exchange of Iranian national records. 00 N.L.M.
9. "Translation and expansion of classification systems in the Arab countries and Iran". P. Soltani. International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control; 25 (1) Jan/Mar 96, p.13-15.
Focuses on the 2 most commonly used classification systems: the Library of Congress (LC) and the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Discusses the necessity for their expansion and translation in developing countries. Covers translations; expansion of DDC in Arab countries; expansion of DDC in Iran; translation of DDC in the Arab countries and Iran; expansions related to LC; and the translation of LC.
10. "Historical aspects of cataloging and classification in Iran". P. Soltani. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly; 35 (1/2) 2002, p.187-207.
Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: Historical aspects of cataloging and classification. Part 1. Reviews the cataloguing and classification of manuscripts and printed material in Iran. A short review of Iranian libraries is followed by a description of the historical background of Fihrist. The historical development of cataloguing of manuscripts is discussed, emphasising the catalogues of manuscripts of the Parliament, Astani Qods, and the National Library as examples. The history of cataloguing and classification of printed books in modern times is reviewed and the vital role played by formal and informal courses taught mainly by foreign lecturers. The initiation of the MLS degree at the University of Theran and the establishment of TEBROC paved the way for standard rules and methods. With the amalgamation of TEBROC in the National Library, modern ways and means were developed for the computerization of cataloguing, cataloguing in publication (CIP), and IRANMARC. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, New York, 13904-1580, USA. E-Mail: [mailto:email@example.com]), Web site [URL:http://www.HaworthPress.com]). (Original abstract)
1. "Negligence and chaos: bibliographical access to Persian language materials in the United States". F. Tehrani. Herald of Library Science; 33 (3-4) Jul-Oct 94, p.255-6.
Article included in an issue devoted mainly to the subject of national libraries in specific countries. Book review abstract. Metuchen, New Jersey, Scarecrow Press, 1991. 240pp. np. Reviewed by P. N. Kaula.